Improve Sleep: Tips to Improve Your Sleep When Times Are Tough

Posted on by Claire C Caruso PhD, RN, FAAN, and L. Casey Chosewood, MD, MPH


Just like food or water, sleep is a biological necessity for life and health. Research shows that the hours we spend sleeping are incredibly important and far from passive. During sleep, your body is busy fighting off viruses and other pathogens, operating a waste removal system to clean the brain, looking for cancer cells and getting rid of them, repairing injured tissues, and forming vital memories that are essential for learning. Getting enough sleep can improve mental health, mood, and ability to think and make good decisions. It is important for the functioning of our heart and other organs.

Most adults need 7 or more hours of good quality (uninterrupted) sleep each day. Some may need even more.

Adequate high-quality sleep is especially important during stressful times. To help you adapt to quickly evolving demands and changes in your personal and work life during the COVID-19 outbreak, the following evidence-based suggestions can help improve your sleep.

Set aside enough time for sleep.

Give yourself enough time in bed to get the amount of sleep you need to wake up feeling well rested. This varies from person to person, but most healthy adults need 7 or more hours of sleep.

Consistent sleep times improve sleep.

Go to bed and get up at about the same times every day, including days off. Ideally, you should go to bed early enough that you don’t need an alarm to wake up.

Exercise improves sleep.

During the day, get some exercise. Even a 10-minute walk will improve sleep, and more is better. Plan on finishing exercise at least 3 hours before sleep is planned.

Bright light during the daytime helps.

Getting bright light during the daytime strengthens your biological rhythms that promote alertness during work and sleep at the end of your day. So, during the daytime spend 30 minutes or so outside in the sunlight. Getting bright light during the first hours of your day is particularly helpful. Even time spent outside on a cloudy day is better than exclusive exposure to dim indoor light. If you can’t get outside, spend time in a brightly lit indoor area.

Where you sleep matters.

Have a good sleep environment that is very dark, quiet, cool, and comfortable.

  • Make the bedroom very dark, blocking out any lights in the room (especially blue and white lights). Cover the windows with opaque window covering if necessary. Use an eye mask if it’s hard to avoid lights from traffic or streetlamps.
  • Use soft ear plugs if your sleep environment is noisy.
  • Have a comfortably cool room temperature—about 65º to 68º F for most of us—and use covers.
  • Have a comfortable mattress and pillow.
  • Do not let pets or phones disturb your sleep.

Use your sleep space for only two things.

To condition your brain to relax when you go into the bedroom, use it only for sleep and intimacy. Do not watch TV, read, or work in the bedroom.

Prepare for a good night’s sleep about 1.5 hours before bedtime.

Follow a relaxing routine 1.5 hours before bedtime to help your body make the transition from being awake to falling asleep. Consider setting an alarm 1.5 hours before bedtime to start preparing for sleep. Don’t expose your eyes to computer or phone screens. Avoid excitement like watching an action movie or reading upsetting news stories. Brushing your teeth, washing your face, and getting into a pre-sleep routine will help you relax. Transition to dim lighting during this time (for example, don’t use a bright light in the bathroom). 

Try relaxation techniques.

  • View tips from the Dartmouth Wellness Center.
  • Taking a warm bath 30 minutes to 2 hours before bedtime can help promote relaxation and optimize body temperature changes that aid in sleep.

Check your intake.

  • Avoid heavy or spicy meals 3 hours before your regular bedtime.
  • Limit liquids several hours before sleep to avoid having to get up to go to the bathroom.
  • Avoid alcohol near bedtime. It may help you fall asleep but can cause sleep disturbances. If you plan to drink alcohol, finish several hours before bedtime.
  • Avoid caffeine, chocolate, and nicotine for 5 or more hours before sleep is planned—more if you are sensitive.

Pay attention to your body’s cues. If you get very sleepy earlier than usual, then by all means, go to bed. This will allow extra time for sleep. Drowsiness is your body’s way of saying that you need sleep. Your body may be fighting off an infection or needing extra sleep to recover from what happened during the day. Researchers theorize that sleep and the immune system work together to fight off viruses and other pathogens. Your body also needs more sleep after experiencing high mental or physical demands.

What if these suggestions don’t work?

It may be wise to get help. Call your doctor if you spend 7 to 9 hours in bed but:

  • You consistently take 30 minutes or more to fall asleep.
  • You consistently awaken several times during sleep or for long periods.
  • You take frequent naps.
  • You often feel sleepy, especially at inappropriate times.

Getting enough good quality sleep significantly improves our health and safety, as well as our ability to perform on the job. As a result, promoting sleep health and an alert workforce is in the interest of managers, workers, and the consumers of the organization’s goods and services. Please share steps your employer has taken that makes it possible for you to use these sleep tips in your daily life.

This is a part of the series of blogs sponsored by NIOSH’s Healthy Work Design and Well-Being Program on issues impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Other blogs include:

COVID-19 Stress Among Your Workers?  Healthy Work Design and Well-Being Solutions Are Critical

Economic Security during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Healthy Work Design and Well-being Perspective

The Role of Organizational Support and Healthy Work Design

Claire C Caruso PhD, RN, FAAN, Research Health Scientist

L. Casey Chosewood, MD, MPH, Director, Office for Total Worker Health®


For more information

The National Sleep Foundation- Sleep Guidelines During the COVID-19 Pandemic

NIH-Your Guide to Healthy Sleep


Posted on by Claire C Caruso PhD, RN, FAAN, and L. Casey Chosewood, MD, MPH

23 comments on “Improve Sleep: Tips to Improve Your Sleep When Times Are Tough”

Comments listed below are posted by individuals not associated with CDC, unless otherwise stated. These comments do not represent the official views of CDC, and CDC does not guarantee that any information posted by individuals on this site is correct, and disclaims any liability for any loss or damage resulting from reliance on any such information. Read more about our comment policy ».

    Good info. Very good advice. Many people at this time are stressed and sleep very poorly. If this situation continues, in the long term it produces a physical and mental deterioration. We need more of these tips

    Telemedicine is making a very positive contribution to healthcare during the pandemic and is being used in a variety of ways. Thanks for sharing this informative article.

    What about sleep products?

    Pajamas, sheets, blankets, mattresses, pillows, masks, night lights, audio tracks, etc.
    Also; middle of the night bathroom trips & snacking, pets & child care.

    Sleep really is important. These are excellent tips. I recently put together an article that covers how Sleep Deprivation Affects Everything, which could be a good additional resource.

    Good info. Very good advice. Many people at this time are stressed and have sleeping disorders. Sleep really is very important in life.

    Really a helpful product which I ‘ve used recently. I was suffering for totally messed sleeping schedule and blessed with Divine sleep I made my routine back on track. And your content is more informative

    your writing is very knowledgeable.
    I want you to always write like this.
    I hope everyone will benefit from reading your article.

    Really good advice and not just for when times are tough. Rest is so important. For me it’s so I can enjoy my running but equally important in all walks of life.

    Good information. Very good advice. Many people feel stressed at this time and sleep very badly. If this situation continues, it leads to physical and mental deterioration in the long run.

    Remember to create a comfortable sleep environment by keeping the room dark, quiet, and at a comfortable temperature, as these factors can also positively influence sleep. Additionally, establishing a regular sleep schedule and avoiding stimulants like caffeine close to bedtime can contribute to better sleep for individuals with dementia or sleep disorders. However, it’s always advisable to consult a healthcare professional for personalized recommendations. The gentle sound of rain can have a calming effect, reducing stress and anxiety, which may aid in falling asleep and staying asleep. A black rain video may help improve your sleep quality.

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Page last reviewed: September 22, 2020
Page last updated: September 22, 2020