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Safety and Health for Immigrant Workers

Posted on by Michael Flynn, MA

 

The United States workforce, like the population in general, is becoming more ethnically diverse. “We are and always will be a nation of immigrants,” President Obama stated recently in announcing his initiative on immigration reform. The Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project estimates that immigrants will make up roughly 23% of adults of working age in 2050, up from 15% in 2005 (Passel & Cohn, 2008). It is also predicted that immigrants and their children will make up 83% of the growth in the working age population of the U.S. during this same time period (Congressional Budget Office, 2005). Immigration from Latin America to the U.S. has grown dramatically over the past 2 decades and will figure prominently in these numbers. Currently, about 18 million Latino immigrants live in the U.S. (Batalova & Terrazas, 2010).

Latino workers suffer significantly higher rates of workplace fatalities (5.0 per 100,000 workers) than all workers combined (4.0), non-Latino white workers (4.0) or non-Latino black workers (3.7) (Cierpich, Styles, Harrison, et al., 2008). Considered alone, Latino immigrants to the U.S. have a workplace fatality rate of 5.9 per 100,000 which is almost 50% higher than the rate for all workers (4.0). In 2013, two-thirds of work-related deaths among Latinos were among foreign-born individuals, up from slightly more than half in 1992. These data suggest that fatalities among immigrant workers may be the driving force behind the elevated rates of workplace injuries and illnesses among Latinos in the U.S.

According to the BLS 2013 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, Hispanic or Latino workers were the only racial/ethnic group with an increase in workplace fatalities in 2013. The 797 Hispanic or Latino worker deaths constituted the highest total since 2008 and a 7 percent increase over 2012.

What can we do to improve safety and health among immigrant populations?  To remain safe, effective, and competitive, companies must understand the diversity that currently exists in the workforce and how workers of different backgrounds approach on-the-job safety.

We have summarized key factors for improving safety and health of immigrant workers below. More details can be found in the article “Safety & the Diverse Workforce Lessons from NIOSH’s Work with Latino Immigrants” published earlier in the year in Professional Safety.

Knowledge as a Barrier to Safety

Many immigrants take jobs in industries unfamiliar to them when they come to the US. As such workplace safety training is critical. However, immigrant workers frequently report not receiving any safety training on the job and the training that they do receive can be of poor quality.

Therefore, determining effective ways to provide safety training to immigrant workers is an essential step in reducing occupational health disparities (O’Connor, Flynn, Weinstock, et al., 2011). Such efforts must go beyond simple translations of existing English-language materials; the format, content and messages should be customized for the target audience (Brunette, 2005).

Language as a Barrier to Safety

Language differences between immigrant workers and their supervisors and coworkers are one of the most frequently cited challenges companies face in promoting safety among immigrant workers (Gany, et al., 2011). This is particularly common in areas of the U.S. that have little to no bilingual infrastructure (Gouveia & Saenz, 2000; Pew Hispanic Center, 2005). Developing a bilingual capacity within an organization, either through training or hiring, will become increasingly important in economic sectors with high immigrant participation such as the construction and service sectors.

Cultural Differences as Barriers to Safety

Cultural factors that may affect safety at work include: how immigrants understand work and their relationship to their coworkers and employers; how these understandings compare to their native-country experiences; how they perceive the dangers at work relative to other risks they face each day (for example unemployment or deportation); how they adapt to workplace dangers; and how these understandings are similar and different from other groups of workers. For example, a study of Latino immigrant workers in Chicago, IL showed that workers’ behaviors reflected a culture that placed a high value on hard work and being perceived as such by their employer (Gomberg-Munoz, 2010). These workers were observed making overt demonstrations of their productivity to curry favor with employers and cultivate a reputation as better employees, which led to a competitive edge in the labor market relative to U.S.-born workers. While this strategy may prove effective in securing employment, it can lead to an increased risk of injury over time. Employers seeking to create a safe work environment must recognize these evolving value systems and adaptations so they can be addressed during training or in one-on-one interactions.

Another common mistake is for managers and institutions to focus on the immigrant’s culture without examining or accounting for the culture of the organization or that of workers from the dominant cultural group. It is important for organizations to develop an understanding of their own internal culture and the degree to which relying on “the way we do things here” may inadvertently exclude workers from different backgrounds. Understanding and overcoming cultural barriers to safety requires sensitivity to the different cultural backgrounds of the employees in any given company, knowledge of the organizational culture, and an appreciation of where these may hinder or facilitate a common understanding and practice.

Social Structures as a Barrier to Safety

Effective communication and training and improved cultural understanding are not the only factors involved in improving safety for a diverse workforce. Structural realities contribute to occupational health inequities for immigrant workers as well. Structural realities are shaped by laws, policies and practices, such as large macroeconomic trends like globalization (Siqueira, Gaydos, Monforton, et al., 2013); systemic discrimination such as racism (Okechukwu, Souza, Davis, de Castro, 2014; Krieger, 2010; Krieger, Waterman, Hartman, et al., 2006); and industry practices, such as a growing reliance on temporary workers (Landsbergis, Grzywacz & LaMontagne, 2014). Eliminating structural barriers often requires changes in policies and practices at levels beyond that of the individual worker or organization (e.g., industry, federal government, international regulatory body). While individual workers or organizations can advocate over time for structural change to eliminate barriers to safety, they often can take short-term actions to mitigate the effects of structural barriers on safety.

One example is the structural barrier to obtaining proper-fitting safety equipment for diverse workers. Many PPE specifications in the U.S. are based on measurements taken from military male recruits in the U.S. during the 1950s to 1970s (Spahr, Kau, Hsiao, et al., 2003). These data do not account for the range of body shapes and sizes of the modern civilian workforce and, consequently, structurally exclude women, nonwhites and individuals with unique body sizes or shapes (Hsiao, Friess, Bradtmiller, et al., 2009). Current initiatives are focused on developing better methods to collect anthropometric data and ensure that datasets used to design PPE are more inclusive (see http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/topics/respirators/headforms/).

Formative research by NIOSH suggests that alternative-sized PPE (PPE designed for women and unisex PPE) may be more widely available than previously thought; Poor advertising and restrictive (e.g. bulk) purchasing policies within organizations, however, often prevent the alternative-sized PPE from reaching workers who might benefit from it (DeLaney, 2012).  Updating the anthropometric databases and creating better fitting PPE will take time. In the short-term individual companies can take action to investigate what alternative-sized PPE is currently available and how they can adapt their purchasing procedures to make it more accessible to their workforce.

Conclusion

To remain effective, competitive and safe organizations must ensure that they have the internal capacity to successfully manage employees from an increasingly diverse workforce. Safety professionals are called on to develop and implement safety programs that account for this diversity. To keep all its workers safe and healthy, a company must understand the diversity that currently exists in the workforce, how workers approach on-the-job safety, and develop a plan to overcome barriers that exist. Efforts to create institutional capacity to effectively work with a diverse workforce require both short and long term planning in key areas such as personnel, program, and partnerships. Some key questions to ask as you evaluate your company’s institutional capacity include:

  1. How has your company evaluated its capacity to respond to the demographic changes in the workforce and how can it systematically fill the gaps it identifies (e.g. bilingual infrastructure, PPE fit)?
  2. Are the current practices and policies at the company inclusive of the current workforce? What can be done to ensure that the policies can adapt to the changing workforce?
  3. How does your organization identify possible barriers to safety that workers from different backgrounds face at work? What internal and external resources or organizations exist to help your organization address these barriers?

 

Share with us what has worked in your company.

 

Michael Flynn, MA

Social Scientist, Training Research and Evaluation Branch

Assistant Coordinator, Priority Populations and Health Disparities Program

 

 

For more information

 

AJIM Special Issue: Achieving Health Equity in the Workplace (May 2014 vol 57(5) AJIM)

New Solutions– New Solut. 2014;24(1):83-106. Occupational safety and health education and training for underserved populations. O’Connor T, Flynn M, Weinstock D, Zanoni J.

NIOSH Occupational Health Disparities webpage

 

References

Batalova, J. & Terrazas, A. (2010). Frequently requested statistics on immigrants and immigration in the U.S. Migration Information Source. Retrieved from www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=818#2

Brunette, M. (2005). Development of educational and training materials on safety and health: Targeting Hispanic workers in the construction industry. Family & Community Health, 28(3), 253-266.

Cierpich, H., Styles, L., Harrison, R., et al. (2008). Work-related injury deaths among Hispanics-United States, 1992-2006. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(21), 2479-2480.

Congretional Budget Office. (2005). The role of immigrants in the U.S. labor market. Washington, DC: Author.

DeLaney, S. (2012, March). Web-based marketing of alternative-sized PPE for a diverse workforce. Poster presented at the NIOSH-PPT program stakeholder meeting. Pittsburgh, PA.

Flynn, M. “Safety & the Diverse Workforce: Lessons From NIOSH’s Work With Latino Immigrants” Professional Safety, June 2014.

Gany, F., Dobslaw, R., Ramirez, J., et al. (2011). Mexican urban occupational health in the U.S.: A population at risk. Journal of Community Health, 36(2), 175-179. doi:10.1007/s10900-010-9295-9

Gomberg-Muñoz, R. (2010). Willing to work: Agency and vulnerability in an undocumented immigrant network. American Anthropologist, 112(2), 295-307. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1433.2010.01227.x

Gouveia, L. & Saenz, R. (2000). Global forces and Latino population growth in the Midwest: A regional and subregional analysis. Great Plains Research, 10, 305-328.

Krieger, N., Waterman, P.D., Hartman, C., et al. (2006). Social hazards on the job: Workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination—A study of black, Latino and white low-income women and men workers in the U.S. International Journal of Health Services, 36(1), 51-85.

Landsbergis, P.A., Grzywacz, J.G. & LaMontagne, A.D. (2014). Work organization, job insecurity and occupational health disparities. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 57(5), 495-515.

O’Connor, T., Flynn, M.A., Weinstock, D., et al. (2011). Education and training for underserved populations. Paper presented at the Eliminating Health and Safety Disparities at Work Conference, Chicago, IL.

Passel, J.S. & Cohn, D.V. (2008). U.S. population projections: 2005-2050. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.

Pew Research Center.(2005). The new Latino south: The context and consequences of rapid population growth (pp.1-45). Washington, DC: Author, Hispanic Center.

Siqueira, C.E., Gaydos, M., Monforton, C., et al. (2014). Effects of social, economic and labor policies on occupational health disparities. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 57(5), 557-572.

Spahr, J., Kau, T., Hsiao, H., et al. (2003, Oct.). Anthropometric differences among Hispanic occupational groups. Paper presented at the National Occupational Injury Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA.

Posted on by Michael Flynn, MA

16 comments on “Safety and Health for Immigrant Workers”

Comments listed below are posted by individuals not associated with CDC, unless otherwise stated. These comments do not represent the official views of CDC, and CDC does not guarantee that any information posted by individuals on this site is correct, and disclaims any liability for any loss or damage resulting from reliance on any such information. Read more about our comment policy ».

    During Immigration process, most of the immigrants focusing on immigration process and visa status only, but most of the people not considering their health status. So for a long time they will face a lot of health problems. Every immigrant should these tips to prevent health problems.

    Hi, this is Peter and we have extensive experience in working with immigrant workers. I can confirm that language and misinterpretation of words and their meanings is a big hazard in relation to on site safety. While specific knowledge is tested and language skills may be found acceptable, sometime workers in health and safety training claim they understood the concept but their answers are automated and their awareness and actual understanding is low and they don’t stress enough the importance of health and safety.
    In cases where another language is dominant we use qualified trainers to explain and address health and safety issues in that specific language – which we find it raises the awareness, and responsibility in relation to health and safety procedures.

    Thanks for the post Michael.

    I have to say that I really enjoyed reading it as it covers a topic close to my heart (workplace safety) and introduced me to a new facet of it that I’d never considered before – the difficulty of training and ensuring the safety of staff with poor English skills.

    I’ve worked in supplying ppe and safety equipment for longer than I care to admit and usually try to partner with those buying our products by not only supplying the equipment, but also helping them with advice on compliance issues and also how to change the safety culture of their organisation.

    I think that, going forward, I need to ask a few targeted question to see what the demographics of the organisation is, highlighting the additional challenges presented by those with poor language skills and highlighting the need for additional training in the correct use of ppe and safety equipment, as well proper adoption of all safety processes and procedures.

    Having tried to assemble flat-pack furniture with Chinese assembly instructions before, this should have hit home to me earlier and I can only imagine the difficulty some immigrant workers may have with the correct use of more complicated safety equipment.

    I hope all employers take a moment to make sure that those employees with poor language skills truly understand the correct use of equipment and the procedures and policies designed to protect them from injury.

    Thanks again Michael for the eye-opener post.

    Karen Baker
    Safety Officer

    Thank you for the informative article, I really enjoyed the statistics. I was quite shocked that namely Latinos suffer from more workplace injuries, is it really that connected to the language barrier?
    In our company, [name removed], we base our whole philosophy on taking little baby steps with new employees. Especially if they are immigrants, we always assign one of our senior workers to help out and observe at the job. I think that employers should go even as far as offering language courses, maybe funded by the government? I don’t know if that’s quite possible or not, but it’s rather a good start.
    Kind regards,
    Lorelai Vano

    America has a good reputation when it comes to receiveing immigrants.
    With the American Lottery, 50000 new people get into American each year.
    And their health is such an important issue.
    Great work that they are putting the health of immigrants first.
    God bless America

    Thank you for the informative article, I really enjoyed the statistics. I was quite shocked that namely Latinos suffer from more workplace injuries, is it really that connected to the language barrier?

    WOW !! What a Cool blog and great shared to Immigrant Workers. I like your awesome tropic and valuable information.

    Nice article, I really enjoyed this article. Thanks a lot this for a very informative post about the Immigrant workers. Keep it up.

    The same thing happens here in the UK. I read an article on Tier 1 Application, you realise that most immigrants are mostly concerned about thier gaining entry into the UK that they neglect the most basic things. The increasing emphasis quantitative elements like rules, money, etc is causing immigrants to forget the most important qualitative things like health and safety.

    Nice piece of informative article

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