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Our Global Voices Posts

Promoting access to and use of clean and safe water to stop hepatitis E

Posted on by Dr. Matthew Goers
GoersWindhoek
Photo credit goes to Nirma Bustamante, another EIS officer in ERRB.

My name is Dr. Matthew Goers, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (or EIS) officer with CDC’s Division of Global Health Protection. Our division works with other countries and international organizations to respond to international disasters, disease outbreaks, and humanitarian crises. In September of 2017, Namibia began reporting sporadic cases of acute jaundice, abdominal pain, and fatigue. These cases were later confirmed to be due to the hepatitis E virus, and by December 2017, the Namibian Ministry of Health and Social Services declared an outbreak of hepatitis E.
Hepatitis E is an enteric disease, meaning that it is caused by an intestinal infection. Because it is often found in water sources contaminated with fecal matter, the disease can spread more rapidly in areas without adequate sanitation. In Namibia, the majority of cases have been reported from informal settlements surrounding Namibia’s capital of Windhoek, but cases have now been reported in all but one of the regions in the country. These areas have limited access to piped water or latrines, making it harder to maintain adequate hygiene or sanitation.
Our team was invited by the Ministry of Health and Social Services to Namibia to support national epidemiology staff and strengthen the outbreak response. By 2018, most cases were centered in two informal settlements surrounding Windhoek as well as a settlement outside of Swakopmund in the west of the country. Under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and Social Services and along with partners such as UNICEF, and WHO, we reviewed the country’s hepatitis E surveillance activities and were able to create a standardized national list of cases to help with reporting. In addition, through implementing a standardized clinic reporting form, we helped to improve data collection methods and the national surveillance process was further streamlined. One clinic even reported 200 additional cases of hepatitis E as a result of these changes.

World Water Day 2019

We also helped the Ministry of Health and Social Services to conduct a knowledge, attitudes, and practice (or KAP) survey in the informal settlements near Windhoek. This survey sought to learn what the community knows about how the disease is spread, perceptions of sanitation and healthcare, and the effectiveness of local messages on hygiene. Chlorine levels in the water supply were also tested and handwashing water was examined for hepatitis E virus. One sample from basins tested positive for hepatitis E. This is concerning because results from the survey suggests that approximately 60% of the people in the area wash hands using a communal basin. Furthermore, almost half of the people we interviewed reported they frequently or occasionally used open fields to defecate.
Based on the survey results, we suggested a number of recommendations. First, hygiene messages and campaigns should encourage people to use running water during handwashing and discourage re-using basin water. Second, Windhoek could consider additional chlorine to their municipal water supply, and water quality at these tap stands should be monitored periodically by the city. Third, the Ministry of Health should promote covering of water containers in the home and the use of narrow neck containers to prevent contamination. Most importantly, we recommended to increase latrine construction in the informal areas to decrease open defecation.
We at CDC work in partnership with countries and organizations worldwide to strengthen capacity to provide safely treated water, monitor waterborne disease outbreaks, and ensure access to water for the most vulnerable. Everyone should have the chance to lead a healthy life, and we can help people achieve this through promoting access to and use of clean and safe water.

Posted on by Dr. Matthew GoersLeave a commentTags , , ,

Thirty years of a Unique Partnership to End Polio-GPEI

chad-polio-vaccination-innovation-outbreak

In 1988, CDC joined three other partners (World Health Organization (WHO), United Nation International Children Fund (UNICF) and Rotary International to launch the ambitious Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). The world was a dangerous place with respect to polio. A case of polio occurred every 90 seconds, meaning 350,000 children had paralytic polio every year. Read More >

Posted on by Dr. John F. Vertefeuille - Incident Manager for the CDC Polio Response and Branch Chief of the Polio Eradication Branch, Global Immunization Division, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionLeave a commentTags , ,

Getting to the Heart of the Matter in Latin America and the Caribbean

A blood pressure screening in Barbados raises awareness of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

“I don’t get migraines, I don’t get dizzy spells any longer,” explains Ms. Williams, a patient at a polyclinic on the Caribbean island nation of Barbados. “It is working for me where I have no problems now with high blood pressure. Yes, I’m hypertensive, but I’m controlled.” Ms. Williams was enrolled as a patient in Read More >

Posted on by Bethany Hall, Scientific Health Communications FellowLeave a commentTags

Rapid Detection Accelerates India’s Response to Nipah Outbreak

CDC is working internationally to build laboratory capacity so that disease can be identified at their source. Photo: CDC India

  On May 17, 2018, almost two weeks after his brother died of febrile illness, a male patient in his mid-twenties visited a hospital in Kerala, India, with a fever. A day later, he was dead — but not before his doctors noticed his symptoms were consistent with encephalitis.Recognizing the potential danger, they immediately sent Read More >

Posted on by Dr. Kayla Laserson, CDC India Country DirectorLeave a comment

Zambia: A regional leader in NPHI development and emergency management

Dr. Victor Mukonka, Director of the Zambia National Public Health Institute

The Zambia National Public Health Institute (ZNPHI) is young but is already emerging as a leader for public health in Southern Africa. We are proud of our growth over the past four years and the increasing role we have assumed in the region. As ZNPHI  Southern Africa’s first regional workshop on public health emergency management Read More >

Posted on by Dr. Victor Mukonka, Director of the Zambia National Public Health InstituteLeave a comment

CDC works with countries to identify children infected with hepatitis B virus and generate the evidence for hepatitis B vaccine birth dose introduction

Anna Minta training the survey team

Around the world, approximately 257 million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and about 700,000 die every year as result of the long-term, chronic health threats from HBV, including liver disease and cancer. But, such suffering can be prevented with a vaccine! More tragic still, newborn babies infected at birth by their mothers, Read More >

Posted on by Anna Akua Minta, (CDC/CGH/GID)Leave a comment

Community-based Surveys are Informing Local Cessation Smoking Campaigns for Indigenous Australians

Project leader Alyson Wright surveys a community member in Central Australia.

Australia is a global leader in tobacco control, with a continuous comprehensive strategy initiated in the late 1980s that includes advertising restrictions, price increases, plain packaging, and mass media campaigns. However, after three decades, limited progress has occurred with regard to smoking prevalence among Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Read More >

Posted on by Alyson Wright, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National UniversityLeave a commentTags , ,

How Senegal is tracking the Silent Killer

How Senegal is tracking the Silent Killer At a packed clinic in the middle of Dakar, Senegal, a busy nurse secures a blood pressure cuff around a patient’s arm. “After I take the blood pressure, I record it here,” the nurse says enthusiastically, showing a patient treatment card to Dr. Monica LaBelle, a CDC Foundation Read More >

Posted on by Bethany Hall, MPHLeave a comment

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative History Project: Documenting the Eradication of Polio

L to R: Oral Historian Hana Crawford, Project Manager Mary Hilpertshauser, Archivist Laura Frizzell

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is a partnership led by five organizations: the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The goal of GPEI is to eradicate polio worldwide. Based at the David Read More >

Posted on by Oral Historian Hana Crawford, Project Manager Mary Hilpertshauser, Archivist Laura FrizzellLeave a commentTags , , , ,

Tetanus: Eliminating the Forgotten, Deadly Disease

FETP Resident Pheobe Hilda Alitubeera searching for tetanus cases in health facility registers.

As a clinician, seeing a patient with a preventable disease like tetanus is heartbreaking. The most common signs are painful spasms of the muscles of the jaw (lockjaw) and spine. But, in the worst cases, tetanus impairs breathing, and without medical intervention, nearly 100% of patients die. Tetanus rarely occurs in the U.S. because we’ve Read More >

Posted on by Dr. Rebecca Casey, EIS Officer, Global Immunization DivisionLeave a commentTags , , , ,
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