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Selected Category: Antimicrobial Resistance

Antimicrobial Stewardship – a concept we must all embrace

Categories: Antibiotic use, Antimicrobial Resistance

Jennie L. Mayfield, BSN, MPH, CIC

Jennie L. Mayfield, BSN, MPH, CIC

Guest Author: Jennie L. Mayfield, BSN, MPH, CIC
2014 President,
Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)

A retrospective study from The University of Texas College of Pharmacy published in the October issue of the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), found that C. difficile infections (CDI) nearly doubled from 2001 to 2010 in U.S. hospitals.

Researchers analyzed 10 years of data from the U.S. National Hospital Discharge Surveys (NHDS) and found that from 2001 to 2010, rates of CDI among hospitalized adults rose from 4.5 to 8.2 CDI discharges per 1,000 total adult hospital discharges.

Antibiotic resistance: Know your ABC’s

Categories: Antibiotic use, Antimicrobial Resistance

Crystal Heishman MSN, RN, CIC, ONC

Crystal Heishman MSN, RN, CIC, ONC

Guest Author: Crystal Heishman MSN, RN, CIC, ONC
Infection preventionist at the University of Louisville Hospital

As healthcare providers and patients, we have long heard the warnings about the dangers and eminent threat of antibiotic resistance. Bacteria have continually adapted to antibiotics, becoming increasingly resistant to many of the medications used to treat them. Resistance is now a global issue that must be addressed comprehensively and quickly.

The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) is raising awareness and focusing attention on antibiotic resistance during Get Smart About Antibiotics Week. The centerpiece of this outreach is a new “ABC’s of Antibiotics [PDF – 714 KB]” infographic poster for patients and families that illustrates when antibiotics work and when they don’t.

A = Ask if antibiotics are appropriate; B = Bacteria – antibiotics only kill bacteria and won’t work to treat viruses; and C = Complete the course of your medicines – even if you feel better before you finish them.

Executive Order Issued On One of the Most Urgent Health Concerns Facing Us Today

Categories: Antimicrobial Resistance, Healthcare-associated infections

Plates of plates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in CDC’s healthcare-associated infections laboratory.

Plates of plates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in CDC’s healthcare-associated infections laboratory.

National Strategy to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

The announcement Thursday morning of the President’s Executive Order and the National Strategy to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria marks the administration’s response to one of the most urgent health threats facing us today – antibiotic resistance.

Read more of the original post

 

 

Success in Controlling Outbreaks in an Intensive Care Unit Using CDC Toolkit Interventions

Categories: Antimicrobial Resistance, Gram negatives, Healthcare-associated infections

Dr. Kyle Enfield

Dr. Kyle Enfield

Guest Author: Kyle B. Enfield, MD,
Assistant Professor of Medicine,
Assistant Hospital Epidemiologist,
Medical Director, Medical Intensive Care Unit,
University of Virginia

Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are on the rise globally. These infections have limited therapeutic options, and invasive infections due to CRE are associated with a mortality rate upwards of 40 percent. A scary statistic for patients!

My institution, the University of Virginia Health System, identified our first case of CRE in August 2007. We had low level transmission with periods of improvement; however, in January 2010 we noted both an increase in CRE transmission among patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), as well as a cluster of infections caused by a nosocomial pathogen new to the unit and our institution – extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB).

It was critical that we address this potential issue head-on in order to ensure positive patient outcomes and do our best to limit our institution’s exposure to CRE. After initial attempts to control these concurrent outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Gram negative pathogens using reinforced standard infection control practices failed, we implemented a bundled set of infection control interventions aimed to assess the prevalence of CRE and XDR-AB colonization or infection in the unit. The collective set of measures we implemented became recommended practice in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2012 Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Toolkit. The interventions were developed by units in collaboration with Infection Prevention and Control and Environmental Services.

Despite Progress, three-quarters of a million infections threaten hospital patients each year

Categories: Antimicrobial Resistance, BSIs, CAUTI, CLABSI, Clostridium difficile, Healthcare-associated infections, Long Term Care (LTC), NHSN, State HAI Prevention

National and State Healthcare-associated Infections Progress Report. This report is based on 2012 data, Published March 2014

National and State Healthcare-associated Infections Progress Report. This report is based on 2012 data, Published March 2014

Despite Progress, three-quarters of a million infections threaten hospital patients each year
National and state data detail threat of healthcare-associated infections and opportunities for further improvements.

CDC released two reports today – one, a New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) article detailing national healthcare-associated infection estimates, and the other an annual report on national and state-specific progress toward U.S. Health and Human Services HAI prevention goals. Together, the reports show that progress has been made in the effort to eliminate infections that commonly threaten hospital patients, but more work is needed to improve patient safety.

The NEJM article updates the burden numbers for healthcare-associated infections in hospitals.  On any given day, 1 of every 25 patients had 1 or more infections related to their hospital stay.   That means about 722,000 infections a year related to medical care.  One of every 9 patients who gets an infection will die during their hospitalization.

This article sounds the alarm about threats we need to address now.  It tells us that lung infections, gut infections, surgical infections and infection from urinary catheters are harming the most patients.

Some of the top pathogens attacking patients are: 

  • C. difficile, or deadly diarrhea,
  • Staph, including the drug-resistant type known as MRSA,
  • a family of germs known as Enterobacteriaceae, that includes CRE the “nightmare bacteria,”

The second report, CDC’s National and State Healthcare-associated Infection Progress Report, includes national and state-by-state summaries of infection types that are commonly required to be reported to CDC. The Progress Report looked at data submitted to CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), the nation’s healthcare-associated infection tracking system.   On the national level, the report found a:

  • 44 percent decrease in central line-associated bloodstream infections between 2008 and 2012
  • 20 percent decrease in infections related to the 10 surgical procedures tracked in the report between 2008 and 2012
  • 4 percent decrease in hospital-onset MRSA bloodstream infections between 2011 and 2012
  • 2 percent decrease in hospital-onset C. difficile infections between 2011 and 2012
  • 3 percent increase in catheter-associated urinary tract infections

At the federal and state levels, CDC uses this information to find facilities that need help and target resources where they are most needed.

To access both reports and to see the updated healthcare-associated infection data, see CDC’s website: www.cdc.gov/hai.

Watch a new video on Healthcare-Associated Infections.

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