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Preventing Chronic Disease Dialogue

Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD) welcomes your comments on selected published articles and posts from experts from CDC’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. PCD encourages an open dialogue among chronic disease prevention researchers, practitioners, and advocates. Check in weekly for new content.

Gestational Diabetes: A Window into the Future

 

Gestational diabetes (GDM) affects as many as 10% of pregnancies in the United States. Although glucose levels for most women with GDM return to normal shortly after delivery, 65% will develop GDM in a future pregnancy, and more than 50% will develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years.

Working Together to Reduce Childhood Obesity

 

Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the United States. Despite recent declines in the prevalence among preschool-aged children (from 13.9% in 2003-2004 to 8.4% in 2011-2012), obesity among children is still too high. For children and adolescents aged 2-19, the prevalence of obesity has remained fairly stable—at about 17% or 12.7 million children and adolescents—for the past decade.

Development of a Nationally Representative Built Environment Measure of Access to Exercise Opportunities

Anne M. Roubal, MS; Amanda Jovaag, MS; Hyojun Park, MA; Keith P. Gennuso, PhD

Suggested citation for this article: Roubal AM, Jovaag A, Park H, Gennuso KP. Development of a Nationally Representative Built Environment Measure of Access to Exercise Opportunities. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:140378. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd12.140378External Web Site Icon.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

We sought to develop a county-level measure to evaluate residents’ access to exercise opportunities. Data were acquired from Esri, DeLorme World Vector (MapMart), and OneSource Global Business Browser (Avention). Using ArcGIS (Esri), we considered census blocks to have access to exercise opportunities if the census block fell within a buffer area around at least 1 park or recreational facility. The percentage of county residents with access to exercise opportunities was reported. Measure validity was examined through correlations with other County Health Rankings & Roadmaps’ measures. Included were 3,114 of 3,141 US counties. The average population with access to exercise opportunities was 52% (range, 0%–100%) with large regional variation. Access to exercise opportunities was most notably associated with no leisure-time physical activity (r = −0.47), premature death (r = −0.38), and obesity (r = −0.36). The measure uses multiple sources to create a valid county-level measure of exercise access. We highlight geographic disparities in access to exercise opportunities and call for improved data.

February is American Heart Month—the perfect time to get your blood pressure checked!

 

While many are preparing for Valentine’s Day by buying candy hearts and making reservations at fancy restaurants, you can show those in your life you care by having a simple conversation about heart health.

The Role of Fear and Disgust in Predicting the Effectiveness of Television Advertisements That Graphically Depict the Health Harms of Smoking

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Harpa Lind Jónsdóttir, MA; Jeffrey E. Holm, PhD; Dmitri Poltavski, PhD; Nancy Vogeltanz-Holm, PhD

Suggested citation for this article: Jónsdóttir HL, Holm JE, Poltavski D, Vogeltanz-Holm N. The Role of Fear and Disgust in Predicting the Effectiveness of Television Advertisements That Graphically Depict the Health Harms of Smoking. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:140326. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.140326External Web Site Icon.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Introduction
Antismoking television advertisements that depict the graphic health harms of smoking are increasingly considered best practices, as exemplified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s current national campaign. Evaluation of responses to these widely used advertisements is important to determine advertisements that are most effective and their mechanisms of action. Our study tested the hypothesis that advertisements rated highest in fear- and disgust-eliciting imagery would be rated as the most effective.

Improving Children’s Menus in Community Restaurants: Best Food for Families, Infants, and Toddlers (Best Food FITS) Intervention, South Central Texas, 2010–2014

COMMUNITY CASE STUDY

Sylvia Hurd Crixell, PhD, RD; BJ Friedman, PhD, RD; Deborah Torrey Fisher, BS; Lesli Biediger-Friedman, PhD, RD, MPH

Suggested citation for this article: Crixell SH, Friedman B, Fisher DT, Biediger-Friedman L. Improving Children’s Menus in Community Restaurants: Best Food for Families, Infants, and Toddlers (Best Food FITS) Intervention, South Central Texas, 2010–2014. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:140361. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.140361External Web Site Icon.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Background
Approximately 32% of US children are overweight or obese. Restaurant and fast food meals contribute 18% of daily calories for children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years. Changing children’s menus may improve their diets. This case study describes Best Food for Families, Infants, and Toddlers (Best Food FITS), a community-based intervention designed to address childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to improve San Marcos children’s access to healthy diets through partnerships with local restaurants, removing sugar-sweetened beverages, decreasing the number of energy-dense entrées, and increasing fruit and vegetable offerings on restaurant menus.

Factors Associated With Daily Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Adult Patients at Four Federally Qualified Health Centers, Bronx, New York, 2013

Expedited Publication

 

Ross B. Kristal, BA; Arthur E. Blank, PhD; Judith Wylie-Rosett, EdD; Peter A. Selwyn, MPH, MD

Suggested citation for this article: Kristal RB, Blank AE, Wylie-Rosett J, Selwyn PA. Factors Associated With Daily Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Adult Patients at Four Federally Qualified Health Centers, Bronx, New York, 2013. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:140342.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Introduction
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study examined the relationships between SSB consumption and demographic, health behavior, health service, and health condition characteristics of adult patients of a network of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in a low-income, urban setting.

Obesity and Associated Factors — Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Ziad A. Memish, MD; Charbel El Bcheraoui, PhD, MSc; Marwa Tuffaha, MD; Margaret Robinson, BSc; Farah Daoud, BSc; Sara Jaber, MD; Sarah Mikhitarian, BSc; Mohammed Al Saeedi, MD; Mohammad A. AlMazroa, MD; Ali H. Mokdad, PhD; Abdullah A. Al Rabeeah, MD

Suggested citation for this article: Memish ZA, El Bcheraoui C, Tuffaha M, Robinson M, Daoud F, Jaber S, et al. Obesity and Associated Factors — Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:140236. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.140236External Web Site Icon.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Introduction
Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors.

The Impact of Cooking Classes on Food-Related Preferences, Attitudes, and Behaviors of School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review of the Evidence, 2003–2014

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Derek Hersch, BS; Laura Perdue, MPH, RD; Teresa Ambroz, MPH, RD; Jackie L. Boucher, MS, RD, CDE

Suggested citation for this article: Hersch D, Perdue L, Ambroz T, Boucher JL. The Impact of Cooking Classes on Food-Related Preferences, Attitudes, and Behaviors of School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review of the Evidence, 2003–2014. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:140267. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.140267External Web Site Icon.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Introduction
Cooking programs have been used to promote healthful eating among people of all ages. This review assesses the evidence on childhood cooking programs and their association with changes in food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children.

Methods
We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases. We included primary research articles that involved cooking education programs for children and searched reference lists for eligible articles. Studies considered for review contained a hands-on cooking intervention; had participants aged 5 to 12 years; were published in a peer-reviewed journal on or after January 1, 2003; and were written in English. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies to rate the strength of each article and assess bias. The following information was extracted from each study: study design, sample size, location, duration, intervention components, data collection methods, and outcomes.

Results
Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and used cooking education to influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Programs varied in duration, evaluation methods, and outcomes of interest. Self-reported food preparation skills, dietary intake, cooking confidence, fruit and vegetable preferences, attitudes toward food and cooking, and food-related knowledge were among the outcomes measured. Program exposure ranged from 2 sessions to regular instruction over 2 years, and the effect of cooking programs on children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors varied among the reviewed studies.

Conclusions
Findings suggest that cooking programs may positively influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. However, because study measurements varied widely, determining best practices was difficult. Further research is needed to fill knowledge gaps on ideal program length, long-term effects, and usefulness of parent engagement, tasting lessons, and other intervention components.

You Can Quit—Celebrate the Great American Smokeout on November 20th

 

This year’s Great American Smokeout, sponsored by the American Cancer Society, coincides with the release of the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Great American Smokeout is an annual event that we at CDC, especially those of us in the Office on Smoking and Health, always look forward to.

Reducing tobacco use is one of CDC Director Dr Tom Frieden’s “Winnable Battles.” Despite continued progress, tobacco companies’ aggressive and evolving marketing efforts pose a continuing challenge to the tobacco control community.

Using legalistic terms to affix the “cigar” label to something that is really more of a cigarette and using tax loopholes to charge less for these products are examples of industry tactics to promote tobacco use, especially among impressionable and cost-conscious young people. Our data show that 90% of smokers tried their first cigarette before the age of 18. Moreover, most adolescent smokers wrongly believe they can quit anytime. Sadly, two-thirds of them never do and as adults face the tragic prospects of sickness, disability, disfigurement, and early death from smoking-related disease.

If current trends continue, about one BILLION people worldwide will die in the 21st century because of tobacco use. And, as physicians who treats tobacco-caused cancer, COPD, or heart disease know, these deaths are horrible for the patients, their families, and the caregivers who walk with them those final miles.

I encourage you to log on to www.cdc.gov/tips and see the moving stories of former smokers who have experienced the ravages of smoking-related disease. Sadly, 3 of these outspoken heroes—Terri, Nathan, and Bill—have passed away since their appearance in our Tips From Former Smokers campaign.

If you use tobacco or have influence over someone who does, please join CDC and the American Cancer Society in supporting the 2014 Great American Smokeout. The life you may help save could be yours or that of someone you love.

 

Tim McAfee, MD, MPH

Director, Office on Smoking and Health

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

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