TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
The Preventing Chronic Disease journal welcomes comments from readers on selected published articles to encourage dialogue between chronic disease prevention, researchers, practitioners and advocates.
September 6th, 2013 10:31 am ET -
Declines in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Children in Los Angeles County, 2007 and 2011
August 16th, 2013 8:34 am ET -
Paul A. Simon, MD, MPH; Amy S. Lightstone, MPH, MA; Steve Baldwin, RD, MS; Tony Kuo, MD, MSHS; Margaret Shih, MD, PhD; Jonathan E. Fielding, MD, MPH
Suggested citation for this article: Simon PA, Lightstone AS, Baldwin S, Kuo T, Shih M, Fielding JE. Declines in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Children in Los Angeles County, 2007 and 2011. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:130049.
Improving Public Health Agency and System Performance: Fortification for Promoting Population Health and Wellness
July 26th, 2013 9:13 am ET -
Judith A. Monroe, MD; Craig Thomas, PhD
America faces a new frontier in preventing chronic disease. Nearly 80% of the 10,000 people who turn 65 each day have at least 1 chronic health condition, and most have multiple chronic conditions (1). The costs of braving this new world are staggering, especially given the nation’s strained economy and budget cuts that have forced health departments to reduce their workforce and impose furloughs and reduce or eliminate chronic disease programs. Despite these daunting challenges, government public health agencies have opportunities to be the driving force behind improving the nation’s health.
Interventions for Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors in Adult African American Populations: A Systematic Review, January 2000 Through December 2011
July 12th, 2013 9:36 am ET -
Jennifer Lemacks, PhD, RD; Brittny A. Wells, MEd, CHES; Jasminka Z. Ilich, PhD, RD; Penny A. Ralston, PhD
June 21st, 2013 9:56 am ET -
Bibiana García-Bailo, MSc; Laura A. Da Costa, MSc; Paul Arora, MSc; Mohamed Karmali, MD; Ahmed El-Sohemy, PhD; Alaa Badawi, PhD
Nutrition and Physical Activity in Child Care Centers: the Impact of a Wellness Policy Initiative on Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation Outcomes, 2011
June 7th, 2013 8:03 am ET -
Rodney Lyn, PhD; Joyce Maalouf, MS, MPH; Sarah Evers, MPH; Justin Davis, MPH; Monica Griffin, MS, RD, LD
Suggested citation for this article: Lyn R, Maalouf J, Evers S, Davis J, Griffin M. Nutrition and Physical Activity in Child Care Centers: the Impact of a Wellness Policy Initiative on Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation Outcomes, 2011. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:120232.
The child care environment has emerged as an ideal setting in which to implement policies that promote healthy body weight of children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a wellness policy and training program on the physical activity and nutrition environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia.
Supermarket and Grocery Store–Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review
May 24th, 2013 7:48 am ET -
Anne L. Escaron, PhD, MPH; Amy M. Meinen, MPH, RD; Susan A. Nitzke, PhD, RD; Ana P. Martinez-Donate, PhD
Suggested citation for this article: Escaron AL, Meinen AM, Nitzke SA, Martinez-Donate AP. Supermarket and Grocery Store–Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:120156. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.120156.
Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices.
We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category.
We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence.
More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed.
The Dimensions of Multiple Chronic Conditions: Where Do We Go From Here? A Commentary on the Special Collection of Preventing Chronic Disease
May 3rd, 2013 9:02 am ET -
Robert B. Wallace, MD, MsC; Marcel E. Salive, MD, MPH
Suggested citation for this article: Wallace RB, Salive ME. The Dimensions of Multiple Chronic Conditions: Where Do We Go From Here? A Commentary on the Special Collection of Preventing Chronic Disease. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:130104. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.130104.
The articles in this issue address the high prevalence and substantial clinical burden of multiple chronic conditions (MCC) among adults. All of these papers further the goals outlined in the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) MCC Strategic Framework (1,2). The article by Goodman, Posner, Huang, Parekh, and Koh (3) introduces the topic and describes the origin of the 20 conditions originally selected by the DHHS for emphasis. The authors also provide a conceptual model for standardizing data approaches to the analyses of MCC. The remaining articles document various distributions and rates of MCC on the national level with analyses of important federal health surveys and databases: Lochner and Cox analyzed Medicare claims data (4); Ashman and Beresovsky analyzed 1 year of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (5); Ford, Croft, Posner, Goodman, and Giles explored the prevalence of lifestyle-related MCC from the National Health Interview Survey (6); Steiner and Friedman examined MCC-related acute care hospitalization rates from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (7); Soni and Machlin analyzed the costs of certain MCC from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (8), and Ward and Schiller estimated MCC rates from the National Health Interview Survey (9).
Behaviors and Attitudes Associated With Low Drinking Water Intake Among US Adults, Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, 2007
April 19th, 2013 8:45 am ET -
Alyson B. Goodman, MD, MPH; Heidi M. Blanck, PhD; Bettylou Sherry, PhD, RD; Sohyun Park, PhD; Linda Nebeling, PhD, MPH, RD; Amy L. Yaroch, PhD
Suggested citation for this article: Goodman AB, Blanck HM, Sherry B, Park S, Nebeling L, Yaroch AL. Behaviors and Attitudes Associated With Low Drinking Water Intake Among US Adults, Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, 2007. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:120248. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.120248.
Water is vital for life, and plain water is a calorie-free option for hydration. Increasing consumption of drinking water is a strategy to reduce energy intake and lose or maintain weight; however, information on the characteristics of consumers who drink water is limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of people who have a low intake of drinking water and to determine associations between their behaviors and attitudes and their intake of water.
We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 3,397 US adults who participated in the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviors and attitudes associated with self-reported drinking water intake of less than 4 cups per day.
Overall, 7% of adults reported no daily consumption of drinking water, 36% reported drinking 1 to 3 cups, 35% reported drinking 4 to 7 cups, and 22% reported drinking 8 cups or more. The likelihood of drinking less than 4 cups of water daily was significantly higher among participants aged 55 years or older than among those aged 18 to 34 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.3), among residents of the Northeast than among residents of the South (AOR, 1.4), among participants who consumed 1 cup or less of fruits or vegetables per day than among those who consumed 4.5 cups or more (AOR, 3.0), among participants who did not exercise than among those who exercised 150 minutes or more per week (AOR, 1.7), and among participants who were neither trying to gain nor lose weight than among those trying to lose weight (AOR, 1.3).
Low drinking water intake was associated with age, region of residence, and several unhealthful behaviors and attitudes. Understanding characteristics associated with low drinking water intake may help to identify populations that could benefit from interventions to help adults drink more water.
April 12th, 2013 9:13 am ET -
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
David H. Jernigan, PhD; Michael Sparks, MA; Evelyn Yang, PhD; Randy Schwartz, MSPH
Suggested citation for this article: Jernigan DH, Sparks M, Yang E, Schwartz R. Using Public Health and Community Partnerships to Reduce Density of Alcohol Outlets. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:120090. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.120090.
Excessive alcohol use causes approximately 80,000 deaths in the United States each year. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends reducing the density of alcohol outlets — the number of physical locations in which alcoholic beverages are available for purchase either per area or per population — through the use of regulatory authority as an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.
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