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Preventing Chronic Disease Dialogue

The Preventing Chronic Disease journal welcomes comments from readers on selected published articles to encourage dialogue between chronic disease prevention, researchers, practitioners and advocates.

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Differences in the Delivery of Health Education to Patients With Chronic Disease by Provider Type, 2005–2009

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Tamara S. Ritsema, MPH, MMSc, PA-C; Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, PhD, MPH; Patty Scholting, MPAS, PA-C; James F. Cawley, MPH, PA-C

Suggested citation for this article: Ritsema TS, Bingenheimer JB, Scholting P, Cawley JF. Differences in the Delivery of Health Education to Patients With Chronic Disease by Provider Type, 2005–2009. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130175. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.130175.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Introduction
Health education provided to patients can reduce mortality and morbidity of chronic disease. Although some studies describe the provision of health education by physicians, few studies have examined how physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners differ in the provision of health education. The objective of our study was to evaluate the rate of health education provision by physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners/certified midwives.

The Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Laws on Restaurants and Bars in 9 States

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Brett R. Loomis, MS; Paul R. Shafer, MA; Martijn van Hasselt, PhD

Suggested citation for this article: Loomis BR, Shafer PR, van Hasselt M. The Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Laws on Restaurants and Bars in 9 States. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:120327. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.120327.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Introduction
Smoke-free air laws in restaurants and bars protect patrons and workers from involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, but owners often express concern that such laws will harm their businesses. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between local smoke-free air laws and economic outcomes in restaurants and bars in 8 states without statewide smoke-free air laws: Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia. A secondary objective was to examine the economic impact of a 2010 statewide smoke-free restaurant and bar law in North Carolina.

Native American Race, Use of the Indian Health Service, and Breast and Lung Cancer Survival in Florida, 1996–2007

BRIEF

David J. Lee, PhD; Stacey L. Tannenbaum, PhD; Tulay Koru-Sengul, PhD; Feng Miao, MS; Wei Zhao, MD, MS; Margaret M. Byrne, PhD

Suggested citation for this article: Lee DJ, Tannenbaum SL, Koru-Sengul T, Miao F, Zhao W, Byrne MM. Native American Race, Use of the Indian Health Service, and Breast and Lung Cancer Survival in Florida, 1996–2007. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130162. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.130162.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

We evaluated associations of race, primary payer at diagnosis, and survival among patients diagnosed in Florida with lung cancer (n = 148,140) and breast cancer (n = 111,795), from 1996 through 2007. In multivariate models adjusted for comorbidities, tumor characteristics, and treatment factors, breast cancer survival was worse for Native American women than for white women (hazard ratio [HR], 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–2.20) and for women using the Indian Health Service than for women using private insurance (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33–2.19). No survival association was found for Native American compared with white lung cancer patients or those using the Indian Health Service versus private insurance in fully adjusted models. Additional resources are needed to improve surveillance strategies and to reduce cancer burden in these populations.

Online Grocery Store Coupons and Unhealthy Foods, United States

BRIEF

Andrea López; Hilary K. Seligman, MD, MAS

Suggested citation for this article: López A, Seligman HK. Online Grocery Store Coupons and Unhealthy Foods, United States. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130211. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.130211.

PEER REVIEWED

Grocery store coupons influence shoppers’ food purchases. We performed a content analysis of online store coupons from 6 national grocery chains. Of 1,056 online store coupons available during the 4-week study period, 25% were for processed snack foods, candies, and desserts (the largest category). Approximately 12% of coupons were for beverages, more than half of which were for sodas, juices, and sports/energy drinks. Few coupons were available for fruits (<1%) or vegetables (3%). Grocery retailers may be uniquely positioned to positively influence Americans’ dietary patterns, and engaging retailers in efforts to provide store coupons for healthy food items may help address public health priorities.

From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants

SPECIAL TOPIC

Jessica Lee Levings, MS, RD, LD; Janelle Peralez Gunn, MPH, RD

Suggested citation for this article: Levings JL, Gunn JP. From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130237. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.130237.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort.

Recommendations for a Culturally Relevant Internet-Based Tool to Promote Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women, Alabama, 2010–2011

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Nefertiti H. Durant, MD, MPH; Rodney P. Joseph, PhD; Andrea Cherrington, MD, MPH; Yendelela Cuffee, PhD; BernNadette Knight, PhD; Dwight Lewis Jr, PhD; Jeroan J. Allison, MD, MS

Suggested citation for this article: Durant NH, Joseph RP, Cherrington A, Cuffee Y, Knight B, Lewis D Jr, et al. Recommendations for a Culturally Relevant Internet-Based Tool to Promote Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women, Alabama, 2010–2011. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130169. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.130169.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Introduction
Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women.

A Tool for Rating Chronic Disease Prevention and Public Health Interventions

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

Cheryl Kelly, PhD, MPH; Darcell Scharff, PhD; Jessi LaRose, MPH; Nikole Lobb Dougherty, MA; Amy Stringer Hessel, MSW; Ross C. Brownson, PhD

Suggested citation for this article: Kelly C, Scharff D, LaRose J, Dougherty NL, Hessel AS, Brownson RC. A Tool for Rating Chronic Disease Prevention and Public Health Interventions. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:130173. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.130173.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Bridging the gap between research and practice requires more than evaluating the effectiveness of interventions in controlled studies. To bridge this gap, evidence needs to be defined in different ways, and opportunities need to be provided for practice-based evidence to be replicated and disseminated. Community-based interventions are often not conducted or evaluated in controlled settings, yet they provide more real-world context and have the potential to have a greater effect on population health than findings from controlled studies that are limited in generalizability. The purpose of this article is to describe an approach to identify community-based programs and interventions that have the potential for replication and dissemination. In our study, such interventions met criteria in 3 primary domains: innovativeness, effectiveness, and sustainability. The criteria and tool developed were applied to 2 obesity-prevention programs to demonstrate the usefulness of the tool for identifying potential programs for replication and dissemination, contributing to practice-based evidence. Funders, practitioners, and researchers can apply these criteria to identify programs, environmental changes, or policies that may be replicated and disseminated.

Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice

SPECIAL TOPIC

Vanessa W. Simonds, ScD; Nina Wallerstein, DrPH; Bonnie Duran, DrPH; Malia Villegas, EdD

Suggested citation for this article: Simonds VW, Wallerstein N, Duran B, Villegas M. Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:120205. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.120205.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009–2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research.

Methods for Translating Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Health-Disparity Communities

TOOL AND TECHNIQUES

Anna Maria Nápoles, PhD, MPH; Jasmine Santoyo-Olsson, MS; Anita L. Stewart, PhD

Suggested citation for this article: Nápoles AM, Santoyo-Olsson J, Stewart AL. Methods for Translating Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Health-Disparity Communities. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:130133. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.130133.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Populations composed of racial/ethnic minorities, disabled persons, and people with low socioeconomic status have worse health than their counterparts. Implementing evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) to prevent and manage chronic disease and disability in community settings could help ameliorate disparities. Although numerous models of implementation processes are available, they are broad in scope, few offer specific methodological guidance, and few address the special issues in reaching vulnerable populations. Drawing from 2 existing models, we describe 7 methodological phases in the process of translating and implementing EBIs in communities to reach these vulnerable groups: establish infrastructure for translation partnership, identify multiple inputs (information gathering), review and distill information (synthesis), adapt and integrate program components (translation), build general and specific capacity (support system), implement intervention (delivery system), and develop appropriate designs and measures (evaluation). For each phase, we describe specific methodological steps and resources and provide examples from research on racial/ethnic minorities, disabled persons, and those with low socioeconomic status. Our methods focus on how to incorporate adaptations so that programs fit new community contexts, meet the needs of individuals in health-disparity populations, capitalize on scientific evidence, and use and build community assets and resources. A key tenet of our approach is to integrate EBIs with community best practices to the extent possible while building local capacity. We discuss tradeoffs between maintaining fidelity to the EBIs while maximizing fit to the new context. These methods could advance our ability to implement potentially effective interventions to reduce health disparities.

Physical Activity During Recess Outdoors and Indoors Among Urban Public School Students, St. Louis, Missouri, 2010–2011

BRIEF

Irene Tran, DPT, MSCI; B. Ruth Clark, PT, PhD; Susan B. Racette, PhD

Suggested citation for this article: Tran I, Clark BR, Racette SB. Physical Activity During Recess Outdoors and Indoors Among Urban Public School Students, St. Louis, Missouri, 2010–2011. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:130135. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.130135.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

We measured the quantity and intensity of physical activity in 106 urban public school students during recess outdoors, recess indoors in the gym, and recess indoors in the classroom. Students in grades 2 through 5 wore accelerometer pedometers for an average of 6.2 (standard deviation [SD], 1.4) recess periods over 8 weeks; a subsample of 26 also wore heart rate monitors. We determined, on the basis of 655 recess observations, that outdoor recess enabled more total steps per recess period (P < .0001), more steps in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (P < .0001), and higher heart rates than recess in the gym or classroom. To maximize physical activity quantity and intensity, school policies should promote outdoor recess.

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