Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home

Our Global Voices

Raising our voices to improve health around the world.

Share
Compartir

Selected Category: infectious disease

World Cup serving as real-world test for new disease detection technology

Categories: global disease detection, global health security, health systems strengthening, infectious disease

 

World Cup soccer ball

 

With the World Cup underway in all its frenzied glory, you can be forgiven for missing another major effort currently underway in Brazil that represents the first large scale, real-life, real-world test of important new technology.

And no, it’s not the goal-line technology that’s being used for the first time at soccer’s biggest competition.

This technology uses computer tablets, sophisticated software designed by CDC and public health experts from Brazil’s Ministry of Health (MOH) trained in the Field Epidemiological Training Program (FETP) to provide the most complete, detailed and timely information about disease threats and other public health concerns.

The tablet-based system and the Epi Info software driving it are seen as an important advance in disease surveillance that gives users the ability to identify outbreaks earlier and with more precision. That ability is especially important in “mass gatherings” such as the World Cup and other major events which is why this disease detection system is being tested this month.

The tablet-based system and the Epi Info software driving it are seen as an important advance in disease surveillance that gives users the ability to identify outbreaks earlier and with more precision.

The tablet-based system and the Epi Info software driving it are seen as an important advance in disease surveillance that gives users the ability to identify outbreaks earlier and with more precision.

The effort also highlights something else – the long and deep relationship between CDC and Brazilian health authorities.

In this case, CDC developed the tools and helped train Brazilian officials to use the technology. Many of the officials trained to use the software are graduates of the Brazil MOH’s FETP, a highly successful program that has taught scores of “disease detectives.”

The roles are clear and distinct. The technology and all the data collected during the mass gatherings, for example, are controlled entirely by Brazilian health authorities and not shared with CDC or any other outside entity. The same is true for where the system is used; the decisions rest solely with the Ministry of Health.

Mass gatherings like the World Cup represent ideal opportunities because they are planned events, fixed in time allowing us to be more prepared for use of this new technology in an unpredictable event such as a natural disaster, said Victor Caceres of CDC’s FETP Branch.

The effort, two years in the making, is being put to the test in the current “mass gathering” of fans, players, and others at the World Cup. It is the first large-scale (both numerically and geographically) system designed to collect, then stream data seamlessly in real time to a central location where public health officials will have access to a comprehensive set of data.

That goal is achieved through a surveillance system that collects real time health data and displays this information in a centrally located dashboard for analysis and response. And by using a popular tech gadget – a computer tablet.

There’s also geographic diversity. The World Cup is being played in 12 locations across Brazil with dramatically different climate and even health profiles of the population.

Analysis of results

Analysis of results

In fact, the system was tested prior to the World Cup in three small events in Brazil that confirmed the design and the promise of the technology. The first test-run was in January at Aparecida, São Paolo when 250,000 people came to the national shrine. The focus was to test the mobile survey tool’s ability and reliability to collect data in real time and observe data collection on a dashboard in the operations center in real time.

“In this partnership, beyond the improvement of these new features of Epi Info, we have the opportunity to enhance surveillance in mass events and to understand the use of data collection in real time in response to public health emergencies,” said Dr. Wanderson Oliveira, Director of Surveillance and Emergency Response for Brazil’s MOH. “The Ministry of Health intends to adopt this strategy to increase the speed in investigations of outbreaks and other emergencies.”

The next trial came in February and March for carnival in the city of Fortaleza where more than 2 million people converged. The final test came in May during a gay pride event in São Paolo attended by 4 million people. The added feature in this trial was that, in addition to providing surveillance at hospitals and clinics the system was also used in major transportation hubs such as airports and rail stations.

The software is the key. Tablets are pre-loaded with specialized CDC developed software known as Epi Info that allows field deployed epidemiologists to collect data for a wide array of categories and indicators. The data is stored offline until Internet connectivity is available, at which point it is sent to “cloud” computer storage for aggregation. At a “home base” that is often an emergency operations center the data can then be viewed on a dashboard that is continuously updated with statistical results, charts, and maps.

The capability will allow outbreaks to be detected far quicker than with previous technology. That ability is important at any time but even more crucial at mass gatherings such as the World Cup or Olympics or in natural disasters where disease can spread faster and in less predictable ways.

Staff responsible for the technologyIlanit Kateb, a public health advisor for the Center for Global Health was deeply involved in developing the project and helping Brazilian officials use it, said Brazil was the perfect collaborative environment. She cited CDC’s long and close relationship with the Ministry of Health and fact that the country’s FETP program is thriving and that Brazil has a long and successful history in public health.

“Brazil is a high-capacity partner,” she said, “and it openly accepted this program and our collaboration.”

This system, Kateb said, shows how FETP is adapting and evolving, using new technology and techniques for a new generation of disease detectives.

With the system functioning well after the first two weeks of the World Cup, Asad Islam, CDC’s Epi Info team lead, said that it is conceivable to take the lessons learned there and apply them to other public health surveillance and response activities related to outbreaks, natural disasters or humanitarian crises.

That remains in the future, however. As successful as the World Cup experience has been to date, Kateb emphasized the system is still in pilot stage. More tests and evaluation are needed before it can be released into wide use by FETP “disease detectives” globally.

No one doubts, however, that that goal will be reached. The only question, they say, is, when?

Did you enjoy this blog? Share it on Twitter!

Polio Eradication, Microplanning and GIS

Categories: child health, immunization, polio

A Bugagi child travels by camel near Lake Chad in Borno State, Nigeria. Photo courtesy of Thomas Moran/WHO.

A Bugagi child travels by camel near Lake Chad in Borno State, Nigeria. Photo courtesy of Thomas Moran/WHO.

Victoria Gammino, PhD, MPH, Epidemiologist, CDC Global Immunization Division

Victoria Gammino, PhD, MPH, Epidemiologist, CDC Global Immunization Division

Geospatial data have been used in public health since John Snow mapped cholera cases around the Broad Street water pump during the London cholera epidemic of 1854.  And, while global positioning system technologies (GPS) are so ubiquitous in the United States that virtually all new smartphones, tablets and cars have this technology embedded, in many areas of the world, health care workers in the field are often without the most basic two-dimensional paper maps.

So what do maps and map literacy have to do with polio?  Polio is a crippling and potentially fatal infectious disease. There is no cure, but there are safe and effective vaccines. Therefore, the strategy to eradicate polio is based on preventing infection by immunizing every child to stop transmission of the virus that causes polio, and ultimately make the world polio free.   The four pillars of polio eradication all rely on “microplans”— detailed logistical blueprints that guide the planning and implementation of vaccination campaigns, routine immunization outreach, and surveillance for polio cases by providing critical data on the size and location of the target population in a given geographic area.  These target population numbers determine the amount of vaccine required, the number of health care workers and supervisors to deliver the vaccine, and the cost of transportation to get the vaccine and health care workers where they need to go.

CDC Staffers Take No Refuge From Helping Refugees Around the World

Categories: infectious disease, refugee health

A child plays with a kite in a tent camp after the earthquake, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2010.

A child plays with a kite in a tent camp after the earthquake, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2010.

For anybody wondering why CDC has a branch dedicated to helping refugees or why the United Nations has formally recognized World Refugee Day every year since it was created in 2001, the answer can be found in a single, stark statistic: In 2013, a person became a new refugee or internally displaced person every 4.1 seconds.

Michelle Dynes, PhD, MPH, MSN, CNM, RN, EIS Officer/Epidemiologist, CDC Emergency Response and Recovery Branch

Michelle Dynes, PhD, MPH, MSN, CNM, RN, EIS Officer/Epidemiologist, CDC Emergency Response and Recovery Branch

Cyrus Shahpar, MD, MBA, MPH, Medical Epidemiologist, CDC Emergency Response and Recovery Branch

Cyrus Shahpar, MD, MBA, MPH, Medical Epidemiologist, CDC Emergency Response and Recovery Branch

That translates to “a population of concern” of nearly 40 million refugees or internally displaced people worldwide every year, according to the United Nations.

It also translates to a lot of illnesses and suffering. And that’s the reason Cyrus Shahpar, Michelle Dynes and approximately 50 other staff in CDC’s Emergency Response and Recovery Branch (Division of Global Health Protection) have their bags packed and are constantly ready to deploy to the field.

Communication Matters in Global Health Deployments

Categories: global health security, infectious disease

During the simulation exercise, ECN trainees deployed to the site of a mock disaster in Avully, Switzerland.

During the simulation exercise, ECN trainees deployed to the site of a mock disaster in Avully, Switzerland.

Communication matters.

Gaya Gamhewage, MD, Coordinator, WHO Communication Capacity Building Team; Founder, WHO Emergency Communication Network

Gaya Gamhewage, MD, Coordinator, WHO Communication Capacity Building Team; Founder, WHO Emergency Communication Network

That’s not a new idea. Many of us have learned this the hard way. This concept is being applied in a new, more comprehensive way for a key purpose—to help the World Health Organization (WHO) communicate more effectively, with more clarity and purpose during humanitarian and public health emergencies.

The idea is to better integrate communications specialists from WHO, CDC, ministries of health and a wide array of other humanitarian and global health organizations into a cohesive, specially trained team that can be dispatched on short notice when public health or humanitarian emergencies occur.

The logic is based on the idea that communications is part and parcel of emergency health response. Communicating in a crisis not only provides the public and policy maker clear and critical information, it also can help the technical side of the response. It connects those affected with those willing to help and can make sure that resources are aligned to the most important needs.

Voices from the Central African Republic: FELTP residents remain committed to strengthening disease surveillance and outbreak response in CAR

Categories: child health, immunization, infectious disease, refugee health

CAR refugees forced from their homes by rebels

CAR refugees forced from their homes by rebels

Dr. Els Mathieu, Resident Advisor, CAR- FELTP

Dr. Els Mathieu, Resident Advisor, CAR- FELTP

The Central African Republic (CAR) is a landlocked country in Central Africa, bordered by Chad in the north, Sudan in the northeast, South Sudan in the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo in the south and Cameroon in the west.  CAR is one of the world’s least developed nations and has experienced several periods of political instability, as well as deadly attacks and violence by rebels that have forced nearly 1 million people from their homes in search of refuge.  With so many civilians fleeing to refugee camps in the capital, Bangui, and the provinces, there is an increased need to strengthen disease surveillance and response.

CDC Protects Families: My favorite stories

Categories: child health, malaria, tuberculosis (TB), women's/maternal health

Terri Still-LeMelle

Terri Still-LeMelle

As we celebrate families on Mother’s Day, May 11, and the International Day of Families, May 15, I am especially proud to work in CDC’s Center for Global Health.  As one of the Center’s  health communication specialists, I have the privilege to write or edit many stories about how CDC’s programs impact the lives of families around the world.  In honor of this season, I’d like to highlight a few of my favorite accounts about brave mothers, determined families, and CDC’s global health programs.

 
 
 
 

Mozambique FELTP fellows evaluate impact of malaria bed net campaign

Categories: health systems strengthening, malaria

One thing is to read a protocol, and quite another to write a protocol, do the field work, and see it through to the end" - Geraldo Chambe, FELTP resident

One thing is to read a protocol, and quite another to write a protocol, do the field work, and see it through to the end" - Geraldo Chambe, FELTP resident

Four Mozambican epidemiologists-in-training spent a month walking up to ten kilometers a day to make sure that one of the most effective malaria control interventions was reaching the poorest Mozambicans. Malaria is the leading cause of death in Mozambique, and insecticide-treated bed nets are one of the key malaria control measures. Since 2007, the U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) has supported the Mozambican Ministry of Health and the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) in efforts to reduce the burden of malaria in the country, not only through distribution of bed nets, but other key components as well: indoor residual spraying, diagnostic testing and treatment with effective antimalarials, and intermittent preventive therapy for pregnant women.

Mateusz Plucinski, PhD, MPH, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Malaria Branch

Mateusz Plucinski, PhD, MPH, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Malaria Branch

In 2013, with PMI support, the NMCP launched a universal bed net distribution campaign in six districts in Nampula Province, located in the northern region of Mozambique. The goal was to provide access to a bed net to the entire population living in the 250,000 households within the target area. The definition of “universal” varies somewhat by country; in Mozambique it means one bed net for every sleeping space. Mass distribution campaigns meant to achieve universal coverage are ambitious, complex, multi-step activities. They involve visiting all households in the distribution area to perform a census, determining how many bed nets to distribute per household, and organizing the logistics of delivering hundreds of thousands of bed nets to remote areas. It is therefore important to evaluate their performance and determine how successful they were in achieving their goal so that lessons learned can inform planning for the next campaign. And for the NMCP, it is important to document how increased bed net ownership and use made possible by campaigns affect malaria transmission.

Vaccination: Your best shot

Categories: child health, immunization, infectious disease, measles

World Immunization Week Banner

In 2002, I was in Maracaibo, Venezuela assisting with the investigation of the last measles outbreak in South America when the news arrived: Ministers of health from the region agreed that a synchronized week of vaccination in the hemisphere would help prevent future outbreaks and increase access to immunization for many who would miss this opportunity. The idea of Vaccination Week in the Americas ignited 12 years ago and is now a global initiative: World Immunization Week! Since 2003, more than 465 million people in the Americas have been vaccinated under the framework that emerged from the original idea of Vaccination Week in the Americas (VWA), which takes place the last week in April every year.

Carla Lee, MA, Public Health Advisor, CDC Global Immunization Division

Carla Lee, MA, Public Health Advisor, CDC Global Immunization Division

VWA is truly a collaborative effort led by countries and territories of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) to improve equity and access to vaccination for families. VWA activities strengthen the national immunization programs in the Americas by reaching out to families with little access to routine immunization programs. The focus is to find people living in urban peripheries, rural and border areas and in indigenous or other hard-to-reach communities and offer them vaccines.

The work has saved lives.

The Region of the Americas encompasses the entire Western Hemisphere (from Canada in the very north all the way down to the southern tip of South America, and all the countries in between), was certified polio-free in 1994. It interrupted the spread of indigenous measles in 2002 and rubella in 2009. However, globally these viruses are still circulating.  A huge global sporting event – the World Cup— takes place in Brazil this summer, attracting millions of travelers from around the world. That adds a new element of risk, increasing the risk of importation of vaccine-preventable diseases into the Americas. In light of the World Cup, VWA will highlight the importance of vaccination to protect the health of the people of the Americas, using slogans like “Vaccination: Your best shot,” and “Go on offense: Get vaccinated!”

April 7 is World Health Day

Categories: child health, infectious disease, malaria, mosquito-borne disease, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), parasitic diseases

    

April 7 marks World Health Day. This year World Health Day focuses on vector-borne diseases. More than half the world is at risk from vector-borne diseases. What exactly is a vector? A vector is a small organism, like a tick or mosquito, that transmits disease. Malaria, dengue, Chagas Disease and lymphatic filariasis are just four examples of vector-borne infectious diseases.   

Come learn about some of these vector-borne diseases and the work that CDC does to prevent, treat, and control these diseases around the world.    

Addressing Childhood Tuberculosis: Shedding Light on a Hidden Epidemic

Categories: infectious disease, tuberculosis (TB)

 

Dr. Maloney consulting on a case in Taiwan

Dr. Maloney consulting on a case in Taiwan

Today is World TB Day, and while we have made great progress to control and cure TB, we must recognize that there is still more that needs to be done. TB remains an urgent public health problem in many parts of the world, often affecting the most vulnerable. In 2012, a total of 8.6 million people became ill with TB and 1.3 million died from the disease globally. TB is a leading cause of death among women worldwide, and has orphaned 10 million children in the past decade. In countries with a high burden of TB, it is also a leading cause of death among children, claiming the lives of more than 200 children each day.

That’s why today is important. World TB Day gives us another chance to renew our determination to work even harder to reach the ultimate goal – eliminating the disease.

The reasons aren’t difficult to find.

Older Posts

Pages in this Blog
  1. [1]
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
 
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO
A-Z Index
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #